Almonds

Product Uses

Food Uses (2016) 1

Almonds are a nutrient-dense nut that can be roasted and eaten plain as a snack, or used as an ingredient in other dishes to add texture and protein. Almonds can also be processed into almond flour, almond butter, almond paste, and almond milk for consumption and use as ingredients.

Non-Food Uses (2016) 2

Almond hulls can be used as feed for livestock, and almond oil also a common additive to cosmetics.

Food Product Codes

FDA Industry Code and General Industry Description 3

FDA Industry Code Description of Product
23 Nut In Shell

HTS code(s) (2015) 4

HTS Code Description of Product
0802110000 Almonds, fresh or dried, in shell
0802120015 Almonds, fresh or dried, shelled
2008194000 Almonds, prepared or preserved nesoi
0802120005 Certified organic almonds, fresh or dried, shelled

USDA NDB code(s) (2015) 5

USDA NDB Code Description of Product
12061 Nuts, almonds
12062 Nuts, almonds, blanched
12206 Nuts, almonds, honey roasted, unblanched
12063 Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, without salt added
12065 Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, without salt added
12563 Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, with salt added
12565 Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, with salt added
12665 Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, lightly salted
12567 Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, with salt added, smoke flavor

Standards and Grades

CODEX Standards 6

CAC/RCP 6-1972

Code of Hygienic Practice for Tree Nuts

FDA Standard of Identity 7

No FDA Standard of Identity was located for this food product.

USDA Grades (2016) 8

In-Shell: U.S. No. 1- almonds in shell which are of similar varietal characteristics and free from loose extraneous and foreign material. The shells are clean, fairly bright, fairly uniform color, and free from damage caused by discoloration, adhering hulls, broken shells or other means. The kernels are well dried, free from decay, rancidity, and free from damage caused by insects, mold, gum, skin discoloration, shriveling, brown spot or other means.

U.S. No. 2- almonds in the shell which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade, except that an additional tolerance of 20% shall be allowed for almonds with shells damaged by discoloration.

Shelled: U.S. Fancy- tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 3% for doubles, 5% for kernels injured by chipping and/or scratching, 0.05% for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles and dust, and 2% for other defects.

U.S. Extra No. 1- tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 5% for doubles, 5% for kernels damaged by chipping and/or scratching, 0.05% for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles and dust, 4% for other defects.

U.S. No. 1- tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 15% for doubles, 10% for kernels damaged by chipping and/or scratching, 0.05% for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles, 5% for other defects.

U.S. Select Sheller Run- tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 15% for doubles, 20% for kernels damaged by chipping and/ or scratching, 0.10 for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles and dust, 5% for split and broken kernels, 3% for other defects.

U.S. Standard Sheller Run- tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 25% for doubles, 35% for kernels damaged by chipping and/or scratching or split and broken, 0.20% for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles and dust, 3% for other defects. U.S. No. 1: In this grade, no less than 30%, by weight, of the kernels shall be whole. Doubles shall not be considered as whole kernels in determining the percentage of whole kernels. Tolerances allowed: 5% for dissimilar varieties, 35% for doubles, 0.20% for foreign materials (not including glass and metal), 0.10% for particles and dust, 5% for undersize, and 5% for other defects.

U.S. No. 1 Pieces- Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter shall be not less than 3.2 mm. Tolerances allowed: 1% for bitter almonds mixed with sweet almonds, 0.20% for foreign material (not including glass and metal), 1% for particles and dust, 5% for other defects.

Consumption, Production and Trade

Estimated Consumption of Almonds in the United States per capita 2005 - 2014 9

Annual Value of Almonds Production in the United States 10

Annual Quantity of Almonds Produced in the United States 10

United States Import Patterns (2015) 11

Almond imports are relatively steady throughout the year, increasing gradually as the growing season progresses, and peaks in December immediately after the growing season has ended.

Monthly Imports of Almonds into the United States 11

Data pulled using HTS codes 080212, 080211, 20081940.

US Imports and Exports by Value (2016, 2015) 11

Data pulled using HTS codes 2008194000, 0802120005, 0802120015, 0802110000, 0802120000
Data pulled using HTS codes 080212, 080211, 20081940.

US Imports and Exports by Quantity (2015) 11

Data pulled using HTS codes 2008194000, 0802120005, 0802120015, 0802110000, 0802120000
Data pulled using HTS codes 080212, 080211, 20081940.

Top 5 Producing Countries of Almonds (2014) 12

Country Metric Tons
United States of America 1,545,500
Spain 195,704
Australia 160,000
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 111,936
Morocco 101,026

Top 5 Exporting Countries of Almonds (2013) 12

Country Metric Tons
United States of America 481,448
Spain 68,046
China, Hong Kong SAR 32,293
Australia 20,273
Germany 12,427

Historic Global Production of Almonds 12

Historic Global Value of Almonds (2012) 12

Active anti-dumping/countervailing duties (2016) 13

Based on the list of antidumping and countervailing duty orders current as of April 12, 2017, there are no active antidumping or countervailing duties for this product.

Processing and Supply Chain Characteristics

Seasonality Profile (2016, 2011) 14

Almond trees do best in environments with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. In the United States, almonds are in season August-November, but can be found in supermarkets year-round. The vast majority of the almonds in the United States are grown in California, but they are also found in warmer, temperate climates in Europe and the Middle East.

Supply Chain Characteristics (2014) 15

1.) Almond Grower, 2.) Huller/Shellers, 3.) Handler, 4.) Export Market/ Further Processing/ Consumers

Way Exported

No typical export methods were located for this product.

Shipping pattern into US

No typical shipping patterns into the US were located for this product.

Typical Packaging (2016) 16

Almonds are typically sealed in plastic bags or tin cans for easy snacking.

Food Safety and Defense

Typical Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) 17

Hazard Common Controls Production/Processing Step
Metal Metal detection Sorting
Chemical or biological contamination Fumigation or pasteurization through roasting, steam processing, or treatment with propylene oxide (PPO) Pre-packaging
Pathogenic bacteria Laboratory testing Finished product sampling

Key Activity Type - Coating/Mixing/Grinding/Rework 17

Yes, coating/mixing/grinding/rework.

Key Activity Type - Ingredient Staging/Prep/Addition 17

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Receiving/Loading 17

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Storage/Hold/Surge Tanks 17

No

Recall history 18

Various almond butter products were recalled due to salmonella contamination in 2012. Through 2016, other almond products have been recalled for containing undeclared peanuts, undeclared peanuts, undeclared hazelnuts and metal fragments. Several almond and almond-containing products have been recalled between 2011 and 2015 due to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Two recalls were initiated in 2017 for undeclared cashews.

Foodborne illness pathogens (2004) 19

Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes

List of past EMA adulterants 20

Peanut powder

Current issues (2014) 21

California, the only U.S. state that commercially produces almonds, has been undergoing harsh droughts in recent years. Almonds are a crop that needs a constant supply of water, with each almond requiring 1.1 gallons of water to grow. Not only has the dry weather caused prices of almonds to spike, but it is also causing a rising environmental concerns. Water is being diverted from natural sources to sustain almond crops, causing reduction in water levels and putting fish populations at risk (including the endangered king salmon). However, the almond industry shows no sign of halting growth, due to still-increasing consumer demand.

Sources

  1. Dairy Council of California- Health Benefits of Almonds. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.healthyeating.org/Healthy-Eating/All-Star-Foods/Meat-Beans/Article-Viewer/Article/88/health-benefits-of-almonds.aspx Almond Board of California- Taste & Versatility. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.almonds.com/food-professionals/manufacturers#taste-and-versatility
  2. Almond Board of California- California Almonds. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.almonds.com/sites/default/files/content/Technical%20%20Information%20Kit.pdf
  3. FDA Product Code Builder. (2015, December 8). Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/ora/pcb/index.cfm
  4. United States International Trade Commission - Harmonized Tariff Schedule. (2015).
  5. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service - National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. (2015, September). Retrieved from https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list
  6. CODEX Alimentarius - International Food Standards. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/standards/en/
  7. Code of Federal Regulations - Food Standards, 21 C.F.R. ยง 130.
  8. United States Department of Agriculture - Grades and Standards. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.ams.usda.gov/grades-standards
  9. United States Department of Agriculture - Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System. (2015, November 12). Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-(per-capita)-data-system.aspx
  10. United States Department of Agriculture - Statistics by Subject. (2015, December 18). Retrieved from http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/index.php
  11. United States Department of Agriculture - Global Agricultural Trade System. (2016). Retrieved from http://apps.fas.usda.gov/gats/default.aspx
  12. FAOSTAT. (2014, October 23). Retrieved from http://faostat.fao.org/
  13. United States International Trade Commission - AD/CVD Orders. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.usitc.gov/trade_remedy/731_ad_701_cvd/investigations/active/index.htm
  14. Almond Board of California- Global Usage. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.almonds.com/food-professionals/about-almonds/global-almond-usage , Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture- Seasonality Charts. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.cuesa.org/eat-seasonally/charts/frui , University of California Davis- Almond Climate and Cultivars. (2011). Retrieved from http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/almondpages/AlmondClimateCultivars/
  15. Almond Hullers and Processors Association. (2014). Retrieved from http://ahpa.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Almond-Hullers-and-Processors-Association-FSMA-Comments-Animal-Feed.pdf
  16. Blue Diamond Almonds. (2016). Retrieved https://bluediamond.com/index.cfm?navid=30
  17. Almond Board of California- Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Program. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.almonds.com/sites/default/files/content/attachments/haccp-forms.pdf
  18. U.S. Food and Drug Administration - Archive for Recalls, Market Withdrawals & Safety Alerts. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/ArchiveRecalls/default.htm
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infections Associated with Raw Almonds --- United States and Canada, 2003--2004. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5322a8.htm U.S. Food and Drug Administration - Archive for Recalls, Market Withdrawals & Safety Alerts. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/ArchiveRecalls/default.htm
  20. Food Protection and Defense Institute - EMA Incidents Database. (2016).
  21. The Atlantic, James Hamblin- The Dark Side of Almond Use. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/08/almonds-demon-nuts/379244/