Eggs

Product Uses

Food Uses 1

Eggs are primarily used as an ingredient or a main component of a dish. Eggs are most commonly eaten as breakfast entrees. As ingredients, eggs are used to bind other ingredients, leaven baked goods such as souffles, thicken custards and sauces, emulsify dressings and mayonnaise, coat breads and cookies, clarify soups and coffee. They are also used for slow crystallization in boiled candies and frostings, and add color, flavor, moisture, and nutrients to baked goods such as cakes. Hard-boiled eggs can also be used as a garnish.

Non-Food Uses 1

Eggs have many non-food uses. They can be used as a facial and in cosmetic products such as shampoos, conditioners, foundations, and lipsticks. Eggs are also used in animal feed as a source of protein and calcium. They are used in laboratory and pharmaceutical settings to make culture medium for microbes, manufacture vaccines, and preserve bull semen for artificial insemination. Certain components of eggs are used as nutraceuticals for food preservation, medical diagnostics, prevention of stomach infections, delivery mechanisms for drugs, and more.

Food Product Codes

FDA Industry Code and General Industry Description 2

FDA Industry Code Description of Product
15 Shell Eggs

HTS code(s) (2015) 3

HTS Code Description of Product
0407210090 Birds' Of Species Gallus Domesticus Fresh Eggs, Not For Hatching
0407290000 Birds' eggs, except fertilized eggs for incubation, except chicken eggs, in shell, fresh
0407900000 Birds' eggs, in shell, preserved or cooked
0407210030 Fresh Table Eggs (Consumer Grades), Of Fowls Of The Species Gallus Domesticus (Chickens), In Shell
0407210090 Chicken Eggs, Except Fertilized Eggs For Incubation, In Shell, Fresh
0407210000 Birds' Of Species Gallus Domesticus Fresh Eggs, Not For Hatching

USDA NDB code(s) (2015) 4

USDA NDB Code Description of Product
01123 Egg, whole, raw, fresh
01124 Egg, white, raw, fresh
01128 Egg, whole, cooked, fried
01130 Egg, whole, cooked, omelet
01131 Egg, whole, cooked, poached
01132 Egg, whole, cooked, scrambled
01133 Egg, whole, dried
01129 Egg, whole, cooked, hard-boiled
01138 Egg, duck, whole, fresh, raw
01139 Egg, goose, whole, fresh, raw
01140 Egg, quail, whole, fresh, raw
01141 Egg, turkey, whole, fresh, raw
01171 Egg, whole, raw, frozen, pasteurized
01134 Egg, whole, dried, stabilized, glucose reduced
01255 Egg, whole, raw, frozen, salted, pasteurized

Standards and Grades

CODEX Standards (2016) 5

CAC/RCP 15 – 1976

FDA Standard of Identity 6

No FDA Standard of Identity was located for this food product.

USDA Grades (2016) 7

Grades of Shell Eggs:

1. U.S. Consumer Grade AA (at origin) shall consist of eggs which are at least 87 percent AA quality. The maximum tolerance of 13 percent which may be below AA quality may consist of A or B quality in any combination, except that within the tolerance for B quality not more than 1 percent may be B quality due to air cells over 3/8 inch, blood spots (aggregating not more than 1/8 inch in diameter), or serious yolk defects. Not more than 5 percent (7 percent for Jumbo size) Checks are permitted and not more than 0.50 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

2. U.S. Consumer Grade AA (destination) shall consist of eggs which are at least 72 percent AA quality. The remaining tolerance of 28 percent shall consist of at least 10 percent A quality and the remainder shall be B quality, except that within the tolerance for B quality not more than 1 percent may be B quality due to air cells over 3/8 inch, blood spots (aggregating not more than 1/8 inch in diameter), or serious yolk defects. Not more than 7 percent (9 percent for Jumbo size) Checks are permitted and not more than 1 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

3. U.S. Consumer Grade A (at origin) shall consist of eggs which are at least 87 percent A quality or better. Within the maximum tolerance of 13 percent which may be below A quality, not more than 1 percent may be B quality due to air cells over 3/8 inch, blood spots (aggregating not more than 1/8 inch in diameter), or serious yolk defects. Not more than 5 percent (7 percent for Jumbo size) Checks are permitted and not more than 0.50 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

4. U.S. Consumer Grade A (destination) shall consist of eggs which are at least 82 percent A quality or better. Within the maximum tolerance of 18 percent which may be below A quality, not more than 1 percent may be B quality due to air cells over 3/8 inch, blood spots (aggregating not more than 1/8 inch in diameter), or serious yolk defects. Not more than 7 percent (9 percent for Jumbo size) Checks are permitted and not more than 1 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

5. U.S. Consumer Grade B (at origin) shall consist of eggs which are at least 90 percent B quality or better, not more than 10 percent may be Checks and not more than 0.50 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

6. U.S. Consumer Grade B (destination) shall consist of eggs which are at least 90 percent B quality or better, not more than 10 percent may be Checks and not more than 1 percent Leakers, Dirties, or Loss (due to meat or blood spots) in any combination, except that such Loss may not exceed 0.30 percent. Other types of Loss are not permitted.

7. Additional tolerances
a. In lots of two or more cases:
i. For Grade AA -- No individual case may exceed 10 percent less AA quality eggs than the minimum permitted for the lot average.
ii. For Grade A -- No individual case may exceed 10 percent less A quality eggs than the minimum permitted for the lot average.
iii. For Grade B -- No individual case may exceed 10 percent less B quality eggs than the minimum permitted for the lot average.
b. For Grades AA, A, and B, no lot shall be rejected or downgraded due to the quality of a single egg except for Loss other than blood or meat spots.

Consumption, Production and Trade

Estimated Consumption of Eggs in the United States per capita 2004 - 2014 (2015) 8

Annual Value of Eggs Production in the United States (2014) 9

Annual Quantity of Eggs Produced in the United States (2014) 9

United States Import Patterns (2015) 10

There is about a 25% increase in the quantity of eggs imported into the United States February through August compared to September through January. The U.S. imports eggs primarily from Canada throughout the entire year, but it is during this time (February through August) that imports from Canada increase, along with total imports of eggs into the U.S.

Monthly Imports of Eggs into the United States 10

Data pulled using HTS code 040721.

US Imports and Exports by Value (2015) 10

Data pulled using HTS codes 0407210090, 0407210030.
Data pulled using HTS code 040721.

US Imports and Exports by Quantity (2015) 10

Data pulled using HTS code 040721.

Top 5 Producing Countries of Eggs (2013) 11

Country Eggs
China, mainland 488,920,000,000
United States of America 95,176,000,000
India 69,731,000,000
Mexico 50,316,920,000
Brazil 43,430,604,000

Top 5 Exporting Countries of Eggs (2013) 12

Country Weight in shell (MTs)
Netherlands 470,149
Turkey 281,370
Poland 213,561
United States of America 144,795
Germany 121,655

Historic Global Production of Eggs 11

Historic Global Value of Eggs (2012) 11

Active anti-dumping/countervailing duties (2015) 13

Based on the list of anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders current as of April 28, 2016, there are no active anti-dumping or countervailing duties for this product.

Processing and Supply Chain Characteristics

Seasonality Profile 14

Hens naturally lay less eggs in the winter to conserve body heat, but due to modern technology, the decrease in winter production is avoided. U.S. egg production does drop slightly in the winter, but not significantly.

Supply Chain Characteristics (2015) 15

Laying hens are hatched by hatcheries and reared to laying age. Layed eggs are graded, washed, and sorted according to size. Cracked eggs are disposed of. Different sized eggs are then packed into the appropriate cartons. Cartons of eggs are then exported or distributed to domestic retailers, foodservice operators, or wholesale markets. Wholesalers sell eggs to food service operators or retailers. The eggs then go to manufacturing of food products, restaurants, supermarkets, and other retailers before they are sold to the consumers.

Way Exported 16

Eggs can be transported in wood pulp or plastic filler trays which can be stacked in boxes for transport. They can also be packaged in smaller cartons for retail purposes. During transport, proper containers and handling is important to prevent physical damage to the eggs. Eggs should be transported at a temperature from 10° to 13° C and protected from contamination and fluctuations in temperature.

Shipping pattern into US

No typical shipping patterns into the US were located for this product.

Typical Packaging (2016) 17

Most often eggs are packaged in dozens in pulp or foam cartons. Eggs can also be packaged in plastic cartons of 6, 8, 18, 30, 36, or 60. Cartons are designed to protect eggs from cracks, loss of moisture, and carbon dioxide. Typical packaging is not tamper evident.

Food Safety and Defense

Typical Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) 18

Hazard Common Controls Production/Processing Step
Laying hens carrying diseases Purchase laying hens from certified origin Acquiring laying hens
Feed contamination due to pathogens and medication misuse Purchase feed from certified origin; produced under certified conditions Feed purchase and storage
Salmonella growth
Regulate moisture and temperature Storage and delivery
Salmonella growth
Pasteurization (some producers) Pasteurization
Egg damage or dirtying Proper handling; machines maintained mechanically and hygienically Egg collection, washing, sorting, delivery, and packaging

Key Activity Type - Coating/Mixing/Grinding/Rework (2014) 19

No

Key Activity Type - Ingredient Staging/Prep/Addition (2014) 19

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Receiving/Loading (2014) 19

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Storage/Hold/Surge Tanks (2014) 19

No

Recall history (2016) 20

There have been approximately 14 recalls of eggs for potential or confirmed contamination with Salmonella in the past five years. There have also been six recalls of processed products which include eggs contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in the past five years.

Foodborne illness pathogens (2016) 21

Salmonella enteritidis

List of past EMA adulterants (2016) 22

Mislabed eggs (non-free range eggs, non-organic eggs), resin, starch, coagulant, pigments, sodium alginate, paraffin wax, gypsum powder, calcium carbonate, sudan IV dye, formaldehyde, expired eggs, copper sulphate

Current issues (2015) 23

An outbreak of the H5N2 avian flu virus in the spring of 2015 has caused a shortage in the egg supply and huge increase in egg prices. Over 48 million turkeys and chickens have died or been culled to prevent spread of the flu. The USDA is predicting a 5.3% decrease in egg production from 2014. Egg prices more than doubled due to low production.

Food Defense Incidents (2017) 24

Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2006
Year Ended
2010
Incident summary
A federal court fined an egg wholesaler in Western Australia $50,000 for intentionally mislabeling a substantial portion of eggs as free-range.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
eggs
Originated location(s)
Australia
Harm location(s)
Australia
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2006
Year Ended
2006
Incident summary
An egg supplier called Heart of England Eggs sold mislabeled eggs to Deans Food, which is one of the largest egg producers in the UK. Deans produces its own free range eggs and suspended purchases from Heart of England eggs when Inspectors identified the mislabeling issue.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
eggs
Originated location(s)
United Kingdom
Harm location(s)
United Kingdom
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2004
Year Ended
2006
Incident summary
A British businessman was sentenced to three years in prison for mislabling and selling caged layer eggs as free range or organic. Approximately three million eggs produced were sold by his business over two years. This adulteration was triggered by large difference in price between free range eggs and cage eggs.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
eggs
Originated location(s)
United Kingdom
Harm location(s)
United Kingdom
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
1,939
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2006
Year Ended
2010
Incident summary
Quality Egg LLC pleaded guilty to mislabeling eggs produced between 2006 and 2010. The company used falsified expiration date labels on eggs that had been held for several days or weeks. The products were sold despite their true age with the intent to earn revenues by misleading state regulators and retail customers. In addition to mislabeling the age of the egg products, the company was also involved in bribery of a public official in 2010. Quality Egg LLC's employees gave cash bribe to an Inspector of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to corruptly influence the inspector's authority to restrict sale of unqualified eggs (containing Salmonella Enteriditis). Though re-processing of such eggs is required by law and USDA standards, briberies let Quality Egg LLC sell eggs without any additional investments to ensure quality and safety of the product.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
eggs
Originated location(s)
United States
Harm location(s)
United States
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2006
Year Ended
2006
Incident summary
Sudan IV was used in duck feeds to enhance the color of egg yolks. It is believed that red yolk in duck eggs indicates better quality and nutritional value of the product. Thus, eggs with red yolks are generally sold at a higher price. To enhance yolk color, producers were adding a special "red drug." The tests revealed that Sudan IV made up 46.5% of the contents of the "red drug" and marketed duck eggs consisted of as much as 0.137 mg Sudan IV per kilogram of eggs. After the adulteration was discovered, officials seized 1,159 kilograms of red-yolk eggs, all produced in Hebei Province.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
Originated location(s)
China, China
Harm location(s)
China
Type of incident
Sabotage
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
1985
Year Ended
1985
Incident summary
A woman from an animal rights militia in London called a British news agency claiming that the group had adulterated eggs with rat poison in a incident on a chicken farm in Biggin Hill, Kent. There was no clear motive, but authorities believe that they were protesting against the condition in which hens are kept. Following the incident on the farm, authorities found a damaged tractor, paint on the walls, a syringe, and a shed containing 18,000 broken eggs.
Adulterated food product(s)
eggs
Affected food product(s)
eggs
Originated location(s)
United Kingdom
Harm location(s)
United Kingdom

Sources

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