Olive Oil

Product Uses

Food Uses 1

Olive oil has a variety of uses in food, ranging from baking to sauteéing. Olive oil is a common replacement for butter in cooking. It is also popular as a dipping oil or topping on breads. Olive oil can also be combined with other products to make things such as salad dressings and sauces. Olive oil can also be a replacement for baking sprays and shortening. Olive oil is popular for its superior quality and nutrition in comparison to other readily available oils.

Non-Food Uses 1

Olive oil has a variety of other uses ranging from home to beauty. Olive oil is known for being good for the skin and hair, especially in regards to cleaning and moisturizing, it can also treat sunburn. It is a common ingredient for homemade skin-care products, facial masks and exfoliants. It can act as a household lubricant and shine multiple household surfaces and polish wood furniture.

Food Product Codes

FDA Industry Code and General Industry Description 2

FDA Industry Code Description of Product
26 Refined Veg Oil

HTS code(s) 3

HTS Code Description of Product
1509102000 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18Kg
1509102030 Certified Organic Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Labeled As Extra Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18Kg
1509102040 Certified Organic Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18Kg
1509102050 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Labeled As Extra Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18Kg
1509102060 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18Kg
1509104000 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1509104030 Certified Organic Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Labeled As Extra Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1509104040 Certified Organic Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1509104050 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Labeled As Extra Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1509104060 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Virgin, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1509902000 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Refined, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With The Immediate Container Under 18 Kg
1509904000 Olive Oil And Its Fractions, Refined, Not Chemically Modified, Weighing With Immediate Container 18 Kg Or Over
1510000000 Olive-Residue Oil And Blends Of Olive Oil And Oil-Residue Oil, Not Chemically Modified
1510002000 Olive-Residue Oil And Blends Of Olive Oil And Olive-Residue Oil, And Their Fractions, Not Chemically Modified, Rendered Unfit For Use As Food
1510004000 Olive-Residue Oil & Blends Of Olive Oil & Olive-Residue Oil, And Their Fractions, Nt Chem Modified, Edible, Weighing Under 18Kg With Container
1510006000 Olive-Residue Oil & Blends Of Olive Oil & Olive-Residue Oil, And Their Fractions, Nt Chem Modified, Edible, Weighing 18Kg Or More With Container

USDA NDB code(s) 4

USDA NDB Code Description of Product
04053 Oil, olive, salad or cooking

Standards and Grades

CODEX Standards 5

CODEX STAN 33-1981

FDA Standard of Identity 6

No FDA Standard of Identity was located for this food product.

USDA Grades 7

1) U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is virgin olive oil which has excellent flavor and odor (median of defects equal to zero and median of
fruitiness greater than zero) and a free fatty acid content, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.8 grams per 100 grams, and meets the additional requirements as outlined in §52.1539, as appropriate.

2) U.S. Virgin Olive Oil is virgin olive oil which has reasonably good flavor and odor (median of defects between zero and 2.5 and median of fruitiness greater than zero) and a free fatty acid content, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 2.0 grams per 100 grams, and meets the additional requirements as outlined in §52.1539 as appropriate. Olive oil that falls into this classification shall not be graded above “U.S. Virgin Olive Oil” (this is a limiting rule).

3) U.S. Virgin Olive Oil Not Fit For Human Consumption Without Further Processing sometimes designated as “U.S. Lampante Virgin Olive Oil,” is virgin olive oil which has poor flavor and odor (median of defects between 2.5 and 6.0 or when the median of defects is less than or equal to 2.5 and the median of fruit is zero), a free fatty acid content, expressed as oleic acid, of more than 2.0 grams per 100 grams, and meets the additional requirements as outlined §52.1539 as appropriate. Olive oil that falls into this classification shall not be graded above "U.S. Virgin Olive Oil Not Fit for Human Consumption Without Further Processing" (this is a limiting rule). It is intended for refining or for purposes other than
food use.

4) U.S. Olive Oil is the oil consisting of a blend of refined olive oil and virgin olive oils fit for consumption without further processing. It has a free fatty acid content, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 1.0 gram per 100 grams, has acceptable odor and flavor characteristic of “virgin olive oil,” and meets the additional requirements as outlined in §52.1539 as appropriate. Olive oil that falls into this classification shall not be graded above “U.S. Olive Oil” (this is a limiting rule). The maximum level permitted of total alpha-tocopherol in the final product is 200 mg/kg.

5) U.S. Refined Olive Oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial
glyceridic structure (basic glycerin-fatty acid structure). It has a free fatty acid content, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3
grams per 100 grams, is flavorless and odorless and meets the additional requirements as outlined in §52.1539 as appropriate. Olive oil that falls into this classification shall not be graded above “U.S. Refined Olive Oil” (this is a limiting rule). The addition of alpha-tocopherol is permitted to restore natural tocopherol lost in the refining process. The maximum level is 200 mg/kg of total alpha-tocopherol in the final product.

Consumption, Production and Trade

Annual Quantity of Olive Oil Produced in the United States

N/A

United States Import Patterns 8

Imports of olive oil do not follow a significant pattern, with clear cut periods of high or low imports, however they do stay within the same range from year to year. Imports tend to stay between 20,000 and 30,000 metric tons throughout the course of the year with volatility in that range.

Monthly Imports of Olive Oil into the United States 8

Data pulled using FAS category "Olive Oil".

US Imports and Exports by Value 8

Data pulled using FAS category "Olive Oil".

US Imports and Exports by Quantity 8

Data pulled using FAS category "Olive Oil".

Top 5 Producing Countries of Olive Oil (2014) 9

Country Metric Tons
Spain 1,738,600
Italy 294,914
Greece 208,900
Tunisia 179,700
Morocco 137,400

Top 5 Exporting Countries of Olive Oil (2013) 9

Country Metric Tons
Spain 709,841
Italy 344,042
Greece 166,977
Tunisia 151,035
Portugul 105,690

Historic Global Production of Olive Oil 10

Active anti-dumping/countervailing duties 11

Based on the list of antidumping and countervailing duty orders current as of April 28, 2016, there are no active antidumping or countervailing duties for this product.

Processing and Supply Chain Characteristics

Seasonality Profile

None - a processed product with innovation and technology in storage processes so that plants can run year-round.

Supply Chain Characteristics 12

Olives are harvested and then transported from the orchard to a processing mill. The oil is extracted at the mill, and if it is virgin grade (fit for consumption) it may be packaged right away. If not, the oil is sold to refineries which produce refined olive oil before it is packaged. Bulk merchants then move the product to a variety of distribution channels including hypermarkets, supermarkets, traditional retail outlets, foodservice and export.

Way Exported 13

Olive oil is mainly transported in tanks and only rarely in barrels. It can be transported in liquid or general cargo by means of ship, truck, and rail.

Shipping pattern into US

No typical shipping patterns into the US were located for this product.

N/A

Typical Packaging 14

Olive oil is packaged in containers made of PET or glass and go through a sealing process. They are then further packaged into boxes and palletized for transportation purposes.

Food Safety and Defense

Typical Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) 15

Hazard Common Controls Production/Processing Step
Microbial infection
Insect Infection
Pesticide residues
Foreign Materials
Inspection and recording of cleanliness and of the certificate specifying the previous load carried. Oil delivery
Not specified Inspection and recording of certificates of physical and organoleptic analysis.
Check for consistency.
Check for compliance with order.
Test for contaminants.
Oil consistency with grade
Not specified Insurance that tank and storage area surfaces and pipes are made of resistant materials preventing the transfer of substances to the contents Cleanness of Storage preises
Water quality
Foreign materials
Reuse of excessive wash water
Pesticides
Heavy metal
Microbial analysis of samples
Effectiveness of cleaning program
Renew wash water frequently
Cleaning
Microbial Infection
Enzymatic reactions
Emulsions formation
State and cleanliness of equipment
Malaxation temperature and time
Malaxation process
Enzymatic reactions
Emulsions formation
Water quality
Impurities
Oil degradation
Operation efficiency and oil loss
State and cleanliness of equipment
Cleaning and disinfection process
Extraction of olive oil by centrifugation

Key Activity Type - Coating/Mixing/Grinding/Rework 16

Yes - coating/mixing/grinding/rework, liquid receiving and loading, and liquid storage/holding tanks

Key Activity Type - Ingredient Staging/Prep/Addition 16

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Receiving/Loading 16

Yes - liquid receiving and loading

Key Activity Type - Liquid Storage/Hold/Surge Tanks 16

Yes - liquid storage/holding tanks

Recall history 17

As of September 9, 2016, no recall history was located for this product.

Foodborne illness pathogens

No associated foodborne illness pathogens were located for this product.

None

List of past EMA adulterants 18

other oils,chlorophyll, beta-carotene, sunflower oil, vegetable oil, soybean oil, aniline, denatured rapeseed oil not fit for consumption, canola oil, Turkish hazelnut oil, Argentinean sunflower-seed oil, olive pomace oil, lampante oil, palm oil, avocado oil, E141 food additive, copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, Spanish Extra Virgin olive oil, low-quality olive oil, Benzo(a)pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refined olive oil, virgin olive oil, imported olive oil, damaged olives, olive oil with a high free fatty acid content, non-Kosher certified olive oil, heliotrope oil, cottonseed oil, copper sulphate, Spanish olives

Current issues 19

World olive oil consumption has increased by 73% over the last 25 years. People in major markets have changed their dietary style, such as Japan, the UK and Germany. The growth in global demand for olive oil has been pushed in part by the health benefits associated with the consumption of olive oil.

Given all the demand growth in the olive oil industry, there is rising concern over the food fraud that takes place. There is concern over the entry of mislabeled bottles, and even the most well known brands are under investigation.

Food Defense Incidents (2018) 20

Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
Unknown
Year Ended
2008
Incident summary
In Italy, sunflower oil and soybean oil were mixed with beta carotene and industrial chlorophyll and sold as extra virgin olive oil to European countries and USA. More than 25,000 liters of the adulterated oil were seized. In addition,15,000 cans, 33,000 labels, 2,800 one-litre bottles of oil and 250kg of chlorophyll were also seized. According to Italy's La Repubblica website, cheap vegetable oil was purchased from the US and colorants were added to bring its color closer to that of real olive oil. Seven olive oil factories were closed and about 39 people were arrested in connection to the food fraud. An investigation into the oil was initiated following customer complaints of poor-quality oil.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Italy
Harm location(s)
Italy, United States, Germany, Switzerland
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
>25,000
Number of deaths
>1000
Year Began
1981
Year Ended
1981
Incident summary
In 1981, approximately 25,000 people were made ill and 1,000 were killed after consuming denatured rapeseed oil sold as olive oil in Spain. The denatured rapeseed oil was produced for industrial use and contained aniline, a derivative of benzene. 40 people were convicted for illegally importing and selling the oil.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Spain
Harm location(s)
Spain
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
1992
Year Ended
1993
Incident summary
In the United States, Investigators from the FDA's Cincinnati district received a telephone tip claiming that Rubino USA routinely blended canola oil with pomace olive oil but did not declare the blend on labels. Reportedly, Rubino USA did not adulterate oils intended for retail packaging because the American Olive Oil Association randomly tested oils bottled for retail sale. The company also did not sell adulterated oils to a major grocery chain in the Cincinnati area because the chain had a product testing program that likely would have discovered the fraud. Rubino USA only produced the illegal blends to fill immediate orders for commercial users so that no adulterated stocks would be stored at the company. The perpetrator plead guilty and was sentenced to four months in federal prison, four months of home incarceration, one year's probation, and $3,100 in fines for adulterating and misbranding olive oil. Officials found no evidence of health hazards with Rubino USA's adulterated products. The company defrauded consumers of about $280,000, according to FDA and court calculations.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
United States
Harm location(s)
United States
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
1991
Year Ended
1993
Incident summary
In Italy, the official identification documents of several tankers filled with Turkish hazelnut and Argentinian sunflower oil were edited to read Greek olive oil and delivered to the Riolio refinery owned by Domenico Ribatti. Ribatti’s adulterated oil had gone to some of the largest producers of Italian olive oil including Nestle, Unilever, Bertolli, and Oleifici Fasanesi. These companies sold the adulterated oil to consumers as genuine olive oil. The economical advantages included direct profits and about twelve million dollars in E.U. subsidies intended to support the olive oil industry. The companies that used Riolio's oil claimed that they had been deceived by Ribatti, and prosecutors were unable to prove complicity on their part. Despite numerous bribes that Ribatti had given to officials, the adulteration was uncovered due to investigation by the Guardia di Finanza.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Argentina, Turkey
Harm location(s)
Italy,
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2006
Year Ended
2006
Incident summary
In 2009, a Toronto-based importer and distributor was fined $40,000 and ordered to dispose of more than 27,000 liters of oil that was labeled extra-virgin olive oil but contained 50% sunflower oil. The adulteration occurred in 2006. It was not indicated if this adulteration was discovered through complaints or regulatory testing. No illnesses or deaths were reported.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Canada
Harm location(s)
Canada
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2005
Year Ended
2006
Incident summary
In Spain, Olive oil diluted with 70-80 percent sunflower oil and food additive E141 was sold in Andalusia and Catalonia. No illnesses or deaths were reported. At packaging and distribution facilities, E141 (containing copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins) was added to match the color of extra virgin olive oil. The oil was then sold to tourists on bus tours, small business, and wine cellars. An investigation by Spanish authorities was instigated after receiving multiple complaints of olive oil adulteration.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Spain
Harm location(s)
Spain
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2011
Year Ended
2011
Incident summary
In Italy, Spanish olive oil was confiscated in the southern town of Salerno after contradicting origin documents were discovered. When the oil truck was checked a fraudulent document of origin stating that the oil was from the Campania region of Italy was presented. The oil was on a truck from Spain, and a document in Spanish language translated to "Extra Virgin Olive Oil-100% Spanish" was uncovered. No illnesses or deaths were reported. Italian olive oil is in high demand and is tightly regulated.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Spain
Harm location(s)
Italy
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
Unknown
Year Ended
2010
Incident summary
Spanish supermarket chain Alcampo was found to be selling a mixture of refined and virgin olive oil labeled as extra virgin olive oil. No illnesses or deaths were reported. Extra virgin olive oil is a very pure product and is much more expensive than virgin or refined oil. An investigation began when the Coordinator of Organizations of Farmers and Cattlemen (COAG) complained to local administration who sent samples to be tested in AgriFood Laboratories. Over eleven thousand liters were recalled by authorities.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Spain
Harm location(s)
Spain
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2010
Year Ended
2011
Incident summary
In Australia, The Big Olive Company was cited for mislabeling their product, Oz Olio, as extra virgin olive oil when it was not extra virgin. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission conducted testing that indicated a high level of free fatty acids in the oil. This indicated that the olives used to produce the oil were damaged or of inferior quality. The Big Olive Company was charged over $13,000 for 1500 liters of mislabeled oil.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Australia
Harm location(s)
Australia
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
Unknown
Year Ended
2003
Incident summary
Two Australian companies, The South Australian Olive Corporation and Inglewood Olive Processors Limited, labeled and advertised their extra virgin olive oils as products of Australia, but up to fifty percent of the oil was imported, misleading customers who were willing to pay more for Australian-made products. It is unknown how the adulteration was hidden or caught. No illnesses or deaths were associated with this event.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Australia,
Harm location(s)
Australia
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2005
Year Ended
2007
Incident summary
An Ohio-based producer and importer of olive oil from Italy , Valdoliva International, Inc., was sued in federal court by the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America for violating the registered Orthodox Union OU trademark. The trademark symbolizes whether food products comply with Jewish laws governing what is kosher. Valdoliva International was labeling its olive oil as certified kosher when it had yet to be certified. Kosher products have a unique but large consumer base that relies on the certification to verify that they can consume the product. The fraud was discovered during a certification inspection when the inspector found already-labeled bottles containing the kosher certification mark even though the company was not certified at that time. Valdoliva claimed that the false labeling was an innocent misunderstanding.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
United States
Harm location(s)
United States
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
2009
Year Ended
2011
Incident summary
In Taiwan, oils produced from Fwosow Industry were found to have been diluted with olive pomace oil and marketed as pure olive oils. Additionally, their grapeseed oil was found to have been artificially enhanced with the banned copper chlorophyllins. Authorities from Spain contacted Taiwanese authorities as early as 2009 to alert the government of the adulteration. No illnesses or deaths have been reported.
Adulterated food product(s)
Grapeseed Oil, olive oil
Affected food product(s)
Grapeseed Oil, olive oil
Originated location(s)
Taiwan
Harm location(s)
Taiwan, Spain
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
Unknown
Year Ended
2005
Incident summary
The owner and head chef of Oustau de Baumaniere in southern France was found guilty of buying an inferior olive oil produced in Spain and selling it to his customers as a high quality "extra virgin" olive oil from Baux-en-Provence, a famous olive-growing region in France. Not only was the adulterated oil was sold at nearly five times the original price, the oil had also been diluted with lamp oil.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Spain, France
Harm location(s)
France
Type of incident
EMA
Number of illnesses
0
Number of deaths
0
Year Began
Unknown
Year Ended
1995
Incident summary
Following a tip from an insider, Italian anti-Mafia and tax investigators seized 18,000 tonnes of virgin olive oil with an estimated value of $50 million in the Puglia and Calabria regions of southern Italy. The oil had been labeled as 100% extra virgin, but only contained 5%. The other 95% of the volume was made up from cheap, low-quality oils like seed oil. A total of 30 executives of 10 different companies were accused this incident.
Adulterated food product(s)
olive oil
Affected food product(s)
olive oil
Originated location(s)
Italy
Harm location(s)
Italy,

Sources

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