Oranges

Product Uses

Food Uses (2008) 1

Oranges are a citrus fruit that is often consumed raw, squeezed to make orange juice, or made into marmalades and other spreads.

Non-Food Uses (2008) 1

The oil of the orange fruit is used as a flavoring, fragrance, and as a solvent in household chemicals (particularly those used for wooden furniture). Orange blossoms can be dried and used to make tea. Orange blossom honey is made by placing beehives in citrus groves for the bees to pollinate the trees, making an orange-flavored honey in the process.

Food Product Codes

FDA Industry Code and General Industry Description 2

FDA Industry Code Description of Product
20 Citrus Fruit

HTS code(s) (2015) 3

HTS Code Description of Product
805100020 Oranges, Temple, Fresh Or Dried
805100040 Oranges, Fresh Or Dried, Nesoi
805100045 Oranges, Certified Organic, Fresh Or Dried, Excluding Temple Oranges
805100065 Oranges, Fresh Or Dried, Other Than Certified Organic, Excluding Temple Oranges
2008304000 Oranges, Prepared Or Preserved Nesoi

USDA NDB code(s) (2015) 4

USDA NDB Code Description of Product
09201 Oranges, raw, California, valencias
09202 Oranges, raw, navels
09203 Oranges, raw, Florida
09205 Oranges, raw, with peel
09200 Oranges, raw, all commercial varieties

Standards and Grades

CODEX Standards 5

CODEX STAN 245-2004

FDA Standard of Identity 6

No FDA Standard of Identity was located for this food product.

USDA Grades (2016) 7

Grades of California and Arizona Oranges:

1. U.S. Fancy: Oranges which are mature, well colored, firm, well-formed, of smooth texture, and which are free from decay, broken skins which are not healed, hard or dry skins, exanthema, growth cracks, dryness of mushy condition, and free from injury caused by bruises, split, rough, wide or protruding navels, creasing, scars, oil spots, scale, skin breakdown, sunburn, dirt or other foreign material disease, insects or mechanical or other means.

2. U.S. No. 1: Oranges which are mature, firm, well formed, of fairly smooth texture, and which are free from decay, broken skins which are not healed, hard or dry skins, exanthema, growth cracks, and free from damage caused by bruises, dryness or mushy condition, split, rough, wide or protruding navels, creasing, scars, oil spots, scale, skin breakdown, sunburn, dirt or other foreign material, disease, insects or mechanical or other means. Each fruit shall be well colored except Valencia oranges which shall be at least fairly well colored: Provided, That navel oranges in any lot which is destined for export and which is certified as meeting the standards for export need be only fairly well colored.

3. U.S. Combination: Combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 oranges: Provided, that at least 40%, by count, of the oranges in each lot shall meet the requirements of the U.S. No. 1 grade.

4. U.S. No. 2: Oranges which are mature, fairly well colored, fairly firm, fairly well formed, which may be of slightly rough texture, and which are free from decay, broken skins which are not healed, hard or dry skins, exanthema, growth cracks, and free from serious damage caused by bruises, dryness or mushy condition, split or protruding navels, creasing, scars, oil spots, scale, skin breakdown, sunburn, dirt or other foreign material, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.

Consumption, Production and Trade

Estimated Consumption of Oranges in the United States per capita 2008 - 2017 (2008-2017) 8

Updated June 2020.

Annual Value of Oranges Production in the United States (2003) 9

Annual Quantity of Oranges Produced in the United States (2015-2019) 10

Updated May 2020

United States Import Patterns 11

Imports are highest June through November, and are lower the other 7 months of the year.

Monthly Imports of Oranges into the United States (2015-2019) 11

Data pulled using HTS code 080510. Updated June 2020.

US Imports and Exports by Value (2015, 2015-2019) 11

Data pulled using HTS code 080510. Updated June 2020.

US Imports and Exports by Quantity (2015-2019) 11

Data pulled using HTS code 080510. Updated June 2020.
Updated June 2020.

Top 5 Producing Countries of Oranges (2018) 12

Country Metric Tons
Brazil 16,713,534
China 9,103,908
India 8,367,000
United States 4,833,480
Mexico 4,737,990

Updated June 2020.

Top 5 Exporting Countries of Oranges (2017) 12

Country Metric Tons
Spain 1,618,255
South Africa 1,170,559
Egypt 742,806
United States of America 588,118
Turkey 390,159

Updated June 2020.

Historic Global Production of Oranges 12

Historic Global Value of Oranges (2012-2016) 12

Updated May 2020.

Active anti-dumping/countervailing duties (2016) 13

Based on the list of anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders current as of January 14, 2016, there are no active anti-dumping or countervailing duties for this product.

Processing and Supply Chain Characteristics

Seasonality Profile (1987, 2016, 1955) 14

Orange trees are subtropical, requiring temperatures from 55-100 degrees Fahrenheit. The trees do not tolerate temperatures below 35 degrees Fahrenheit, and can be quickly killed by freezing. Orange trees do best in well-drained soil that is deep enough for adequate root development. In the United States, oranges are largely grown in areas in California and Florida. Oranges in the United States are available all year round, but are mainly harvested from July to September.

Supply Chain Characteristics 15

Orange trees produce full yield at about their 10th year of production. Orange exporters' representatives often contact farmers for exportation. To sell oranges domestically, the farmers either sell to retailers directly, or through a chain of wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. Some countries, like Bangladesh, impose duties on orange imports.

Way Exported 16

Oranges are mainly transported in cartons, standard and half-boxes, wire-bound boxes, and fruit crates made of corrugated cardboard or wood. They are sometimes also transported in bags.

Shipping pattern into US

No typical shipping patterns into the US were located for this product.

Typical Packaging (2012) 17

This product is sold in cartons, or individually (without packaging). Individually sold oranges may not be tamper evident.

Food Safety and Defense

Key Activity Type - Coating/Mixing/Grinding/Rework 18

Yes - Mixing and similar activities

Key Activity Type - Ingredient Staging/Prep/Addition 18

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Receiving/Loading 18

No

Key Activity Type - Liquid Storage/Hold/Surge Tanks 18

No

Recall history 18

As of June 24, 2020 no recall history was located for this product.

Foodborne illness pathogens 19

Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes

List of past EMA adulterants 20

Calcium carbide, mercury

Terrorism and Attacks Involving Food (1979) 21

Five Dutch children fell ill after consuming mercury-contaminated oranges from Israeli origin.The Arab Revolutionary Army Palestinian Command claimed responsibility for injecting the oranges with mercury. Days after the incident happened, the government of West Germany and The Netherlands received a letter from the Arab Revolutionary Army Palestinian Command claiming that their intention was never to harm any children or anyone but to "damage the Israeli economy which is based on oppression, segregation and colonial occupation." The Israeli's Marketing Board issued a statement denying that the incident occurred in Israel and stated that injections took place in Holland, because had the oranges been injected while in Israel, they would have deteriorated while shipping. Other European health ministries also got the same letter claiming that this incident was to damage the Israeli economy. A British expert claimed that the contamination occurred at a warehouse since the letters were sent from Germany as well as the phone threats made were from and within Germany. Authorities believe that the perpetrators might have been German radical elements close to Palestinian terrorists organizations.

Current issues 22

2015 was a low production year for orange farmers because of the plight of citrus greening disease, which causes oranges to fall of the trees before they are ripe enough. This has inflated orange prices around the country. While farmers are still fighting the losses from this disease, hurricane Hermine hit in September 2016, wiping out several orange crops, which will further increase orange prices and damage the supply.

Sources

  1. New World Encyclopedia- Orange (fruit). (2008). Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Orange_(fruit)
  2. FDA Product Code Builder. (2015, December 8). Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/ora/pcb/index.cfm
  3. United States International Trade Commission - Harmonized Tariff Schedule. (2015).
  4. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service - National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. (2015, September). Retrieved from https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list
  5. CODEX Alimentarius - International Food Standards. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/standards/en
  6. Code of Federal Regulations - Food Standards, 21 C.F.R. ยง 130.
  7. United States Department of Agriculture - Grades and Standards. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.ams.usda.gov/grades-standards
  8. United States Department of Agriculture - Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System. (2015, November 12). Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-(per-capita)-data-system.aspx
  9. United States Department of Agriculture - Statistics by Subject. (2015, December 18). Retrieved from http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/index.php
  10. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/result.php?DC3B4227-32A6-3F97-9810-D4EC4559807B§or=CROPS&group=FRUIT%20%26%20TREE%20NUTS&comm=ORANGES
  11. United States Department of Agriculture - Global Agricultural Trade System. (2016). Retrieved from http://apps.fas.usda.gov/gats/default.aspx
  12. FAOSTAT. (2014, October 23). Retrieved from http://faostat.fao.org/
  13. United States International Trade Commission. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.usitc.gov/trade_remedy/731_ad_701_cvd/investigations/active/index.htm
  14. In: Fruits of warm climates, Julia F. Morton- Orange. (1987). Retrieved from https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/orange.html , Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture- Oranges. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.cuesa.org/food/oranges , "Harvest Time Affects Valencias: yield, fruit size and grade influenced by early, late, or midseason timing of orange harvesting", Winston W. Jones and Clarence B. Cree. (1955). Retrieved from https://ucanr.edu/repositoryfiles/ca901p11-58986.pdf
  15. Business Standard - The shades of oranges (Part II). (2015). Retrieved from http://www.business-standard.com/article/punditry/the-shades-of-oranges-part-ii-115121600288_1.html
  16. Transport Information Service. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_search/suche_e.jsp
  17. Sequoia Orange Company. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.sequoiaorange.com/
  18. "Appendix 4 - Evaluation of Food Manufactured, Processed, Packed, or Held On-farm for Risk of Intentional Adulteration. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodScienceResearch/RiskSafetyAssessment/UCM377408.pdf"
  19. Pub Med - Spread of bacterial pathogens during preparation of freshly squeezed orange juice. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12929844
  20. Food Protection and Defense Institute - EMA Incidents Database. (2016).
  21. https://incidents.foodprotection.io/events/895
  22. NPR - How Long Can FLorida's Citrus Industry Survive?. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/11/27/457424528/how-long-can-floridas-citrus-industry-survive CNN - Hurricane Hermine hits Florida, weakens into tropical storm. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/02/us/hurricane-hermine/